FAQ: What Health Effects Are Caused by AFFF Foam Chemicals?

Written By:
Jessie Paluch
Jessie Paluch

Attorney Jessie Paluch, founder of TruLaw, has over 25 years of experience as a personal injury and mass tort attorney, and previously worked as an international tax attorney at Deloitte. Jessie collaborates with attorneys nationwide — enabling her to share reliable, up-to-date legal information with our readers.

This article has been written and reviewed for legal accuracy and clarity by the team of writers and legal experts at TruLaw and is as accurate as possible. This content should not be taken as legal advice from an attorney. If you would like to learn more about our owner and experienced injury lawyer, Jessie Paluch, you can do so here.

TruLaw does everything possible to make sure the information in this article is up to date and accurate. If you need specific legal advice about your case, contact us by using the chat on the bottom of this page. This article should not be taken as advice from an attorney.

Key takeaways:

  • Governments have introduced regulations against AFFF foam chemicals because of their environmental impact and potential health hazards
  • AFFF foam chemicals are used in fighting class B fires but contain harmful substances like PFOS and PFOA
  • Alternatives to AFFF foam chemicals are being explored that do not contain harmful PFAS compounds, offering hope for safer firefighting methods in the future.

What Health Effects Are Caused by AFFF Foam Chemicals? Let's Discuss.

Question: What health effects are caused by AFFF foam chemicals?

Answer: The negative health effects caused by AFFF foam chemicals can lead to various forms of cancer and other serious health-related issues, particularly for firefighters subjected to prolonged exposure.

Negative Health Effects of AFFF Foam Chemicals

On this page, we’ll discuss the health effects of AFFF foam chemicals, their harmful impact on the environment, measures taken to mitigate their risks, and much more.

FAQ What Health Effects Are Caused by AFFF Foam Chemicals

Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) is a substance commonly used by firefighters for liquid-fueled fires, such as oil spills.

It is also known to contain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), which are highly toxic chemicals.

The health effects linked to AFFF foam chemicals include, but are not limited to:

  • Reproductive impairment
  • Increased risk of cancer
  • Reduced immune system response
  • Other serious health-related issues

Nearly all Americans are estimated to have some amount of PFAS in their blood due to exposure.

If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

Table of Contents

The Impact of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) on Human Health

Exposure to certain firefighting foams can lead to worrying health effects.

AFFF foam, a common fire suppressant for fuel fires, contains chemicals that may harm your body over time.

What are AFFF Foam Chemicals?

AFFF foam chemicals are a specialized type of fire suppressant designed to fight fires that involve flammable liquids, known as class B fires.

These synthetic foams create a film-forming blanket over the fuel surface, cutting off the supply of oxygen and smothering the flames.

Often termed “forever chemicals,” they break down at an alarmingly slow rate—leading to prolonged exposure risks for firefighters, military personnel, and communities near training facilities or sites where AFFF has been used extensively.

Research indicates that chemicals found in these foams, particularly poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), have been linked to various forms of cancer and other health issues.

Scientists reveal that individuals who come into contact with AFFF may absorb dangerous chemicals through skin contact or inhalation.

This exposure poses significant threats as PFOS and PFOA—common components in these formulations—accumulate over time within the human body.

The long-term implications of such accumulation lead to increased chances of developing life-threatening diseases like leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and liver tumors among firefighters, military personnel, and those living near areas where AFFF is regularly used.

As these toxic firefighting foam agents seep into groundwater and drinking water supplies, they pose long-term health threats that could lead to severe illnesses.

Composition of AFFF Foam Chemicals

The primary substances present in AFFF formulations are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), both recognized for their carcinogenic potential.

These chemicals belong to a larger group known as PFAS, which stands as a probable cause of cancer according to scientific studies.

In addition to these main compounds, many AFFF foams include various other PFAS side products that inadvertently result from the manufacturing process.

These unintended by-products add further complexity and potential harm regarding environmental and health concerns.

This intricate blend of fluorinated surfactants designed for quick spread over flammable liquids poses serious risks when released into the environment or when people face long-term exposure during firefighting or training exercises.

Illnesses Linked to Prolonged Exposure to AFFF Foam Chemicals

Exposure to AFFF foam chemicals, particularly PFOS and PFOA, can severely affect human health.

The alarming link between AFFF firefighting foams and multiple forms of cancer is well-established through studies showing significantly increased rates of kidney and prostate cancers among those exposed.

With health problems this significant on the line, understanding toxic chemical exposure becomes crucial in protecting public health.

Prolonged exposure to chemicals such as PFOS and PFOA has been connected to the following life-threatening illnesses including, but not limited to:

  • Thyroid disease: Individuals exposed to AFFF may develop problems with their thyroid gland, which can disrupt hormone production and metabolism.
  • Cancer risks: Contact with AFFF has been associated with a higher likelihood of developing cancers such as testicular, kidney, and bladder cancer.
  • Kidney cancer: Specifically, PFOS and PFOA exposure from AFFF foam has been linked directly to kidney cancer.
  • Developmental effects: Pregnant women exposed to these chemicals might face elevated risks of complications or developmental issues in their unborn children.
  • Respiratory problems: Some individuals have reported respiratory issues like asthma that could be tied back to contact with toxic firefighting foams.
  • Fertility concerns: Research indicates potential fertility challenges for those regularly handling or coming into contact with AFFF due to its chemical makeup.
  • Immune system effects: Changes in immune response have been observed in people and laboratory animals exposed to the hazardous substances found in AFFF foams.

If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

The Role of AFFF Foam Chemicals in Firefighting

Firefighting teams rely on aqueous film-forming foams to quickly smother fires involving flammable liquids.

This is essential since water alone cannot suppress these intense blazes, including oil, gasoline, and other hydrocarbon-based substances.

The foam chemicals create a barrier between the fire and the air, cutting off the oxygen that fuels the flames.

This action halts combustion processes and cools down the heat.

They have been widely adopted across fire departments globally for their effectiveness against liquid fires at airports, military bases, and industrial sites.

Despite their success in fire suppression, concerns about their safety continue to drive research into safer alternatives that do not compromise performance.

AFFF Foam Chemicals in Flammable Liquids Fire

AFFF foam chemicals create a foam blanket that cuts off the oxygen supply and cools down the fire, preventing re-ignition.

The efficiency of AFFF in fighting fires comes from its unique ability to spread quickly over the surface of burning liquids.

Despite their effectiveness in combating flammable liquid fires, concerns surround the chemicals within AFFF.

Toxic components like PFOS are linked to severe health risks, including cancer development after long-term exposure.

As these harmful substances can persist in the environment and contaminate water supplies, their use raises significant environmental protection challenges.

AFFF Foam Chemicals: Combatting Flammable Liquid Fires

Combating fires involving flammable liquids requires specialized agents to quickly suppress the fire and prevent re-ignition.

The AFFF foam chemicals form a barrier between the fuel and the air, effectively cutting off the oxygen that feeds the flames.

This action halts combustion and cools down the burning material.

Moreover, AFFF’s unique properties produce a film over the surface of polar solvent fires or other flammable liquids, preventing flammable vapors from reaching an ignition point.

When firefighters tackle these intense fires, they rely on AFFF to provide rapid knockdown performance.

Applying this high-expansion foam concentrate directly onto combustible liquid blazes creates an extinguishing blanket more resilient than water alone could offer.

This swift response is critical when dealing with emergencies where every second matters in saving lives and property from the destruction caused by potential explosions or spreading fires.

History of AFFF Firefighting Foam Chemicals

AFFF foam chemicals revolutionized firefighting when the Naval Research Laboratory developed them to tackle fuel fires effectively.

These foams quickly spread a fire-quenching blanket over flammable liquids, cutting off oxygen and bringing blazes under control at a remarkable speed.

Their effectiveness meant AFFF became essential in high-risk areas like military facilities, airports, and oil rigs where fuel fires are prevalent.

For years, countless firefighters relied on AFFF for its unparalleled ability to extinguish combustible liquid conflagrations.

The long-term use of these toxic chemicals now raises significant concerns due to their persistence in the environment and potential health risks.

Despite environmental protection agencies’ efforts to manage risks associated with hydrocarbon-based surfactants found in firefighting foams, legacy contamination remains widespread as it infiltrates soil and water sources globally.

Environmental Impact of AFFF Foam Chemicals

Chemicals within AFFF, particularly those containing PFAS (per and poly-fluoroalkyl substances), persist in the environment for extended periods.

Regulations and Guidelines for AFFF Foam Chemicals

As these toxic substances seep into soil and groundwater, they contaminate drinking water sources, causing long-term ecological damage.

Wildlife exposure to these chemicals can disrupt natural habitats and food chains.

Efforts to manage the fallout include disposal programs aimed at adequately disposing of firefighting foams laden with harmful compounds.

Despite such measures, polluted sites reveal negative health effects on surrounding communities due to contaminated water resources.

In response, pressure mounts for developing alternatives like fluorine-free foams, which pose fewer risks to humans and ecosystems

Governments around the world have taken steps to introduce stringent regulations and guidelines for these substances due to their potentially carcinogenic effects.

These measures safeguard firefighters, industry workers, and residents from long-term exposure risks of experiencing adverse health conditions.

In the United States, agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) oversee hazardous materials like AFFF compliance.

Comprehensive guidelines mandate strict reporting of AFFF usage, handling procedures designed to minimize leaks or spills, and protocols for properly disposing of contaminated firefighting gear or water runoff containing these chemicals in afff.

Frequent risk assessments update permissible exposure limits based on evolving scientific data, ensuring that safety standards remain up-to-date with current research findings on health consequences such as testicular cancer linked to certain components within AFFF solutions.

Current State of Regulation of AFFF Foam Chemicals

Due to health concerns, governments are taking steps to control the use of AFFF foam chemicals.

The dangers associated with long-term exposure to toxic substances in these foams, like PFOS and PFOA, have led authorities to introduce stricter regulations.

These chemicals are now classified as possibly carcinogenic by international agencies.

This move aims to reduce their presence in firefighting foams and lessen the risks of developing cancer for those exposed.

Some regions have already banned certain PFAS chemicals found in AFFF products, while others are phasing them out or setting limits on their usage.

Firefighting organizations also responsible for the proper disposal of the chemicals after use.

As regulation evolves, compliance measures become more vigorous and best practices for handling toxic firefighting foam are widely adopted across industries.

Government Regulations for AFFF Foam Chemicals

Governments worldwide are taking action to regulate AFFF foam chemicals, especially given their content of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).

These substances are now known as probable carcinogens; strict guidelines have been enacted to minimize exposure.

In the United States, regulations aim to phase out PFOS and PFOA—two toxic compounds found in AFFF.

Authorities require firefighting agencies to follow best practices for handling these foams and ensure safe disposal methods that prevent further environmental contamination.

These regulatory measures help protect firefighters and communities from the long-term health effects of AFFF use.

Compliance is critical—not only for reducing the potential risk of developing cancer but also for safeguarding our soil and water resources.

Firefighting departments must adapt by implementing alternative solutions that don’t compromise effectiveness while meeting safety standards set by government bodies focused on public health protection.

Compliance and Best Practices for toxic firefighting foam

Building upon established government regulations, organizations and individuals must adhere to compliance standards and best practices for managing toxic firefighting foams such as AFFF.

The following procedures to limit exposure and mitigate the health risks of toxic firefighting foams include:

  1. Use Alternatives: Whenever possible, opt for firefighting foam alternatives that do not contain PFAS or other harmful chemicals associated with AFFF.
  2. Protective Gear: Ensure firefighters wear appropriate protective gear, including gloves and masks, to prevent skin contact and inhalation of toxic substances in AFFF.
  3. Training Programs: Implement comprehensive training programs focused on the handling, use, and risks associated with AFFF foam to educate firefighters about safe practices.
  4. Foam Containment: Employ containment measures during training or actual fire suppression activities to minimize environmental contamination from AFFF runoff.
  5. Decontamination Protocols: Establish rigorous decontamination protocols for personnel and equipment following exposure to AFFF foam.
  6. Proper Storage: Store AFFF products in secure containers that prevent leaks and accidental exposure, checking them regularly for integrity.
  7. Spill Response Plan: Create a detailed spill response plan outlining immediate actions to take in case of an accidental release of AFFF foam into the environment.
  8. Exposure Monitoring: Conduct regular health monitoring for individuals with long-term exposure to ensure early detection of potential health issues related to AFFF chemicals.
  9. Disposal Practices: Follow strict disposal guidelines for AFFF foam waste that conform with local regulatory requirements and aim at preventing environmental harm.
  10. Record Keeping: Maintain accurate records of all AFFF usage, storage, training sessions, health monitoring results, and incidents of spills or leaks.

If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

Ongoing Litigations Against AFFF Manufacturers

Legal challenges are piling up for AFFF foam manufacturers as courts examine the health issues linked to these firefighting products.

Individuals and communities have brought forward claims, arguing that long-term exposure to the toxic chemicals in AFFF has led to serious health problems, including an increased risk of developing cancer.

Across the nation, numerous cases are moving through litigation processes, with plaintiffs seeking justice and financial redress for damages incurred.

These legal actions spotlight individuals suffering and broader concerns about corporate accountability for public health and environmental safety related to AFFF firefighting foam chemicals.

The Current State of AFFF Firefighting Foam Chemical Litigations

Courts across the United States are witnessing a surge in AFFF firefighting foam lawsuits as firefighters and exposed individuals come forward with claims regarding serious health effects from long-term exposure to firefighting foams.

These legal actions focus on manufacturers such as 3M and DuPont, who face allegations of knowingly selling harmful AFFF products packed with toxic PFAS chemicals—ties suspected to develop cancer and other severe conditions.

With the swell of litigation gaining momentum, plaintiffs assert that manufacturers did not provide adequate warnings about the dangers.

They argue these companies prioritized profits over people’s health, leading many to suffer from deadly diseases like cancer and heart problems directly related to PFAS contamination.

As cases mount, they shed light on corporate responsibility and consumer safety surrounding chemical exposures from firefighting foams.

Government and Regulatory Organizations Actions

Amidst ongoing litigation, the government and various organizations are actively responding to the challenges of AFFF foam chemicals.

The following efforts aim to mitigate health risks and enhance public safety through a series of decisive actions such as:

  • Issuing Health Advisories: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released health advisories about certain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) found in AFFF, outlining their risks and providing guidance.
  • Setting Regulatory Limits: Legislators are working on setting enforceable limits for PFAS levels in drinking water, which would hold companies accountable for contamination.
  • Monitoring Water Sources: Agencies are testing water sources near areas known to have used AFFF to track the potential chemical spread and impact on communities.
  • Providing Public Education: Education campaigns inform the public about AFFF-associated risks and ways to reduce exposure.
  • Research Funding: The government is increasing funding for research into the health effects of PFAS and effective firefighting alternatives.
  • Encouraging Safer Alternatives: Support is being given to develop less hazardous firefighting foams that do not contain toxic PFAS compounds.
  • Enhancing Protective Gear for Firefighters: New standards are being set to equip firefighters with gear that minimizes their contact with dangerous substances while handling AFFF.
  • Promoting Responsible Disposal: Guidelines have been established to dispose of AFFF-containing materials, preventing environmental contamination.

If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

Toxicity Concerns: AFFF Foam Chemicals and Human Health

AFFF foam chemicals, particularly PFOS and PFOA, are linked to a range of serious health issues.

The presence of PFOA and PFOS in AFFF foam has raised alarms due to their links to detrimental health conditions, including cancer and thyroid disease.

Specific Concerns Regarding AFFF Foam Chemicals

Research indicates that even low levels of AFFF-related PFAS can have significant impacts on reproductive and immune systems. Moreover, these chemicals may harbor additional toxic side products not fully understood or regulated yet.

Firefighters and communities near industrial facilities using AFFF are particularly at risk for these health hazards, prompting an urgent need for monitoring and preventative measures against contamination.

Many individuals exposed to these toxic agents have suffered from conditions such as thyroid disease and high cholesterol.

Furthermore, children with early-life exposure to these chemicals can experience developmental delays and decreased vaccine response.

The gravity of these health threats has prompted many fire departments to reconsider using AFFF foams containing PFOS and PFOA during firefighting operations.

Alternatives to AFFF Foam Chemicals

As awareness of the hazards associated with AFFF foam grows, fire departments and researchers are turning to safer firefighting alternatives.

These innovative solutions aim to provide effective fire suppression without relying on harmful PFAS chemicals.

They include fluorine-free foams that utilize alternative compounds to create a film over flammable liquids, preventing oxygen from fueling the flames.

Advances in technology have also led to water mist systems that suffocate fires at their core using fine mists of water droplets.

Scientists continue investigating plant-based formulations for firefighting applications as well.

These biodegradable options offer an environmentally friendly approach and reduce exposure risks for firefighters and communities alike.

With each new development, the industry moves closer to extinguishing not only dangerous blazes but also the threat posed by toxic firefighting agents like AFFF foam.

The progress in crafting these alternatives underscores a commitment to health, safety, and environmental responsibility within the realm of emergency response efforts.

Concluding Thoughts: AFFF Foam Chemicals

AFFF foam chemicals play a critical role in fighting dangerous flammable liquid fires, yet their safety is currently under intense scrutiny. Their association with severe health conditions demands attention and action to protect public health.

Ensuring the well-being of those exposed to these substances requires both informed usage and diligent pursuit of safer alternatives.

If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What health effects are caused by AFFF foam chemicals?

    The chemicals in Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF), known as PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), are toxic and have been linked to several negative health impacts.

    These include reproductive impairment, an increased risk of cancer, and a reduced immune system response. AFFF is also the leading cause of PFAS contamination in drinking water.

    If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

  • What are PFAS and AFFF Foam Chemicals?

    The chemicals in AFFF that raise concern are PFAS (per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances).

    PFAS are toxic chemicals that are known to adversely affect human health and do not decompose quickly in the environment, waterways, wildlife, or human bodies.

    If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

  • What are the environmental impacts of synthetic foams such as AFFF?

    Synthetic foams such as AFFF (Aqueous Film-Forming Foam) are concerning due to their content of PFAS (Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances), which pose a risk to both groundwater and surface water quality.

    These substances are highly persistent, may be highly mobile, and some bioaccumulate in organisms.

    hey are known to contaminate natural areas, including groundwater and drinking water.

    In addition to this, they are difficult to clean up once released into the environment.

    If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

  • Are there safer alternatives to AFFF for dealing with Class B fires?

    Yes, fluorine-free foam is a safer alternative to fight class B fires.

    This type of foam does not contain the harmful PFAS chemicals found in traditional AFFF, making it a more environmentally friendly and less hazardous option.

    However, it may be less effective in extinguishing certain fires, especially those involving highly flammable liquids.

    If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

  • What should military firefighters know about AFFF and its risks?

    Military firefighters should be aware that AFFF Exposure poses significant health risks, such as an increased likelihood of developing various types of cancer.

    This risk is particularly high for military firefighters and other personnel who have regularly used or been exposed to AFFF.

    The Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are currently investigating the extent of PFAS contamination and working on establishing regulations and standards for PFAS in air and drinking water.

    If you or a loved one has suffered from health complications linked to AFFF foam chemicals, contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to receive an instant case evaluation.

Written By:
Jessie Paluch
Jessie Paluch

Experienced Attorney & Legal SaaS CEO

With over 25 years of legal experience, Jessie is an Illinois lawyer, a CPA, and a mother of three.  She spent the first decade of her career working as an international tax attorney at Deloitte.

In 2009, Jessie co-founded her own law firm with her husband – which has scaled to over 30 employees since its conception.

In 2016, Jessie founded TruLaw, which allows her to collaborate with attorneys and legal experts across the United States on a daily basis. This hypervaluable network of experts is what enables her to share reliable legal information with her readers!

You can learn more about the AFFF Lawsuit by visiting any of our pages listed below:

Camp Lejeune Lawsuit

Camp Lejeune’s water contamination issue spanned several decades starting in the 1950s. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to various serious health issues, including cancer, organ diseases, and death.

Tylenol Lawsuit

Research is increasingly suggesting a link between the use of Tylenol during pregnancy and the development of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and ADHD, in infants.

AFFF Lawsuit

Legal action is being taken against manufacturers of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF), a chemical used in fighting fires. The plaintiffs allege that exposure to the foam caused health issues such as cancer, organ damage, and birth and fertility issues.

Do You
Have A Case?

Here, at TruLaw, we’re committed to helping victims get the justice they deserve.

Alongside our partner law firms, we have successfully collected over $3 Billion in verdicts and settlements on behalf of injured individuals.

Would you like our help?

Helpful Sites & Resources