Why Is Vaginal Mesh Surgery Controversial?

Key takeaways:

  • Safety concerns surrounding vaginal mesh surgery arise from complications like erosion and exposure, emphasizing the need to understand and address associated risks effectively.
  • The FDA's reclassification of transvaginal mesh implants as high-risk medical devices and subsequent halt of their sale signal the gravity of safety concerns, stressing the importance of stringent oversight for patient safety.
  • The growing demand for safer alternatives to vaginal mesh surgery reflects the need to effectively treat pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence while minimizing severe complications, highlighting the significance of ongoing research and innovation in healthcare.

Overview of Vaginal Mesh Surgery Controversy [2024 Guide]

On this page, we will discuss an overview of why vaginal mesh surgery is controversial, gathering evidence after vaginal mesh surgery, how to hire a transvaginal mesh attorney, and much more.

Why Is Vaginal Mesh Surgery Controversial

Intro to Vaginal Mesh Surgery

Vaginal mesh surgery is an operative procedure with the primary intent of treating conditions such as POP and SUI.

The key considerations of vaginal mesh surgery include:

  1. Safety and complications: While effective, the procedure is compounded by possible risks, including mesh erosion and infection.
  2. Varieties of mesh: There are different types of mesh materials available, each with its specific properties and intended uses.
  3. Surgical approach: The surgical technique may vary, as the mesh can be permanently implanted through abdominal or transvaginal approaches.
  4. Pros and cons: It is crucial to weigh the potential benefits against the mesh complications and discuss these with a healthcare provider.

If you or a loved one has experienced an injury related to a surgical mesh device, you may be entitled to compensation.

Contact TruLaw using the chat on this page to learn if you qualify to file a transvaginal mesh lawsuit today.

Table of Contents

Conditions Treated with Vaginal Mesh Surgery

Vaginal mesh surgery specifically addresses two main conditions, Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) and Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI).

Conditions Treated with Vaginal Mesh Surgery

These are common pelvic floor disorders that can significantly impact quality of life.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when pelvic organs, like the bladder, rectum, or uterus, descend into the vaginal canal due to weakened supporting pelvic muscles and tissues.

Here’s how vaginal mesh is used to treat pelvic organ prolapse:

  • Reinforcing pelvic anatomy: Mesh is used to provide additional support to the weakened areas.
  • Preventing further prolapse: By securing prolapsed organs, the mesh helps prevent organs from descending further into the vagina.
  • Restoring organ function: Proper positioning of pelvic organs can improve their function.
  • Improving quality of life: Successful surgical outcomes can alleviate discomfort and embarrassment, improving the patient’s day-to-day life.

The use of transvaginal mesh for POP repair has been met with both success and scrutiny, leading to careful patient selection and thorough discussion of risks and benefits.

Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)

Stress urinary incontinence is the unintentional leakage of urine during activities that put pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, or exercising.

The role of vaginal mesh in treating SUI involves:

  • Supporting urethra: Mesh acts as a sling to support the urethra, helping it remain closed during stress activities.
  • Restoring urinary control: The aim is to reduce or eliminate episodes of leakage.
  • Minimizing invasive procedures: The surgical approach often involves smaller incisions and can be less invasive than other surgical options.
  • Duration of effectiveness: Many patients experience long-term relief from SUI symptoms after mesh placement.

It’s crucial for patients to have a detailed understanding of potential outcomes and risks associated with mesh use in the treatment of urinary incontinence.

Vaginal Mesh Surgery Procedure

Vaginal mesh surgery is a surgical treatment aimed at resolving conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse.

Vaginal Mesh Surgery Procedure

It involves the placement of a synthetic mesh to support the pelvic organs.

Pre-Surgical Considerations

Before surgery, it’s crucial to evaluate the patient’s medical history and discuss treatment options, including the risks and benefits of vaginal mesh surgery.

This process also involves setting a surgery date, arranging pre-operative tests, and providing instructions for preparation and post-operative care.

Before undergoing the surgical procedure, thorough planning is necessary to ensure the best outcomes and mitigate potential complications:

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s medical history and pelvic organ prolapse condition.
  2. Discussion of treatment options, including potential risks and benefits of vaginal mesh surgery compared to other treatment options.
  3. Setting a date for surgery that accounts for any need for pre-operative tests or adjustments in routine medications.
  4. Instructions for the patient on preparing for surgery, which may include fasting and arranging for post-operative assistance.

Main Surgical Procedures Performed

After securing the mesh, meticulous attention is given to ensure proper tension and positioning to prevent complications such as erosion or contraction.

Additionally, thorough post-operative care and monitoring are essential to assess healing and address any potential adverse effects promptly.

The main surgical procedures performed for the insertion of vaginal mesh involve specific steps requiring precision:

  • Preparation of the surgical site with antiseptic and appropriate draping.
  • Making small incisions in the vaginal wall to access the area of prolapse.
  • Precise placement of the synthetic mesh to reinforce the vaginal wall and pelvic floor supports.
  • Securing the mesh and closing the small incisions with sutures or surgical staples.

Post-Surgical Care

After surgery, it’s essential to follow a strict recovery plan.

Patient should adhere to the following proper recovery regimen to support healing and reduce the likelihood of complications:

  • Routine check ups with the surgeon to monitor the healing process and mesh integration.
  • Adherence to prescribed post-surgical restrictions, such as limiting strenuous activities and heavy lifting.
  • Awareness of signs and symptoms that could indicate complications requiring immediate medical attention.
  • Guidelines on resuming normal activities and suggestions for maintaining pelvic floor strength long-term.

Potential Complications of Vaginal Mesh Surgery

Vaginal mesh surgery, performed to address pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence, carries certain risks and potential complications.

Potential Complications of Vaginal Mesh Surgery

These may manifest shortly after surgery or develop as long-term issues.

Immediate Post-Operative Risks

In the immediate aftermath of vaginal mesh surgery, patients may experience a range of complications.

To provide comprehensive insights:

  1. Infection may develop at the surgery site or within the urinary tract.
  2. Bleeding could occur, which is typically limited but can sometimes be significant.
  3. Reactions to anesthesia are potential concerns, encompassing nausea or more serious effects.
  4. Bladder injury might transpire during the surgical procedure.

Long-Term Mesh-Related Complications

As time progresses after the initial surgery, patients may encounter long-term complications related to the presence of surgical mesh.

The following are particularly noteworthy:

  • Mesh erosion, also known as mesh exposure, occurs when the mesh wears through the vaginal lining.
  • Prolonged pelvic or groin pain that persists well beyond the expected recovery period.
  • Pelvic pain, specifically, can be a consequence of mesh contraction or tissue inflammation.
  • In some severe cases, mesh exposure can lead to pain during sexual intercourse or even organ perforation.

The occurrence of serious complications often necessitates additional interventions or surgeries to resolve the issues caused by the mesh.

Vaginal Mesh Surgery Recovery and Quality of Life

Vaginal mesh surgery can have a significant impact on a patient’s recovery period and quality of life.

Vaginal Mesh Surgery Recovery and Quality of Life

The process involves not only the physical healing timeline but also adjustments in daily activities and sexual function.

Physical Recovery Timeline

After vaginal mesh surgery, most patients experience a structured recovery period.

Healthcare providers outline specific timelines for recovery, which may include:

  1. Hospital Stay: Typically lasts 1-2 days post-surgery.
  2. Initial Rest: Patients are advised to rest and avoid strenuous activity for the first 2-4 weeks.
  3. Gradual Activity Resumption: Light activities can often be resumed after 4-6 weeks, with guidance from healthcare providers.
  4. Full Recovery: Complete healing and return to normal activities can vary but generally take place within 3-6 months.

Healthcare providers monitor each stage of recovery to ensure complications are managed effectively.

Impact on Daily Activities and Sexual Function

The impact of vaginal mesh surgery on daily activities and sexual function is an important consideration.

Here’s how recovery can affect these aspects:

  • Daily Routine: Patients may need to adjust their daily activities, especially during the first few weeks following surgery.
  • Physical Limitations: Lifting heavy objects and engaging in high-impact exercise are often restricted to promote healing.
  • Pain Management: Discomfort and pain are common; healthcare providers will tailor management strategies to individual needs.
  • Sexual Intercourse: Resumption of sexual activity is generally advised after a healing period, which can be around 6 weeks or longer, depending on the patient’s unique recovery process.

The patient’s quality of life post-surgery will heavily depend on adherence to recovery guidelines and the body’s response to the mesh.

Legal and Regulatory Perspectives on Vaginal Mesh Surgery

Legal and regulatory scrutiny has had a significant impact on the use of vaginal mesh in surgical procedures.

Legal and Regulatory Perspectives on Vaginal Mesh Surgery

The evolution of guidelines and the education of healthcare providers reflect these changes.

FDA Stance on Vaginal Mesh

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been pivotal in shaping the legal and regulatory landscape concerning vaginal mesh.

Initial complications such as mesh exposure and pain led the FDA to issue warnings and eventually, certain mesh products were reclassified as high-risk.

Here’s a timeline of the FDA’s involvement in regulating vaginal mesh:

  • 2008 FDA Warning: Raised awareness about the risks associated with mesh surgery.
  • 2011 Safety Alert: A subsequent alert due to ongoing concerns about the complications.
  • FDA Determined: After systematic reviews, the agency mandated the reclassification of surgical mesh for transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse repair as class III (high risk) in 2016.
  • FDA Ban: In 2019, the sale of all surgical mesh products intended for transvaginal repair of posterior compartment prolapse was halted.

Transitioning from these regulatory actions, the FDA has established rigorous standards for manufacturers that decide to keep their products on the market.

Healthcare Provider Guidelines and Patient Education

Following the FDA‘s decisions, healthcare providers have had to adapt their practice and patient care protocols.

Adequate patient education regarding the potential risks and benefits has become essential.

As a response to the FDA’s decisions, healthcare providers have adjusted their practice and patient care protocols:

  • Pre-Operative Patient Counseling: A cornerstone of patient care involving detailed discussions about alternative treatments and potential complications of mesh surgery.
  • Informed Consent: Updated consent forms now include specific language related to the risks associated with vaginal mesh.
  • Surgical Training: Enhanced professional development requirements for surgeons to ensure they are proficient in mesh-related procedures.
  • Post-Operative Monitoring: An emphasis on regular follow-ups to promptly identify and manage any complications.

Alternatives to Vaginal Mesh Surgery

When seeking treatment for conditions like weakened vaginal walls or pelvic organ prolapse, patients may consider alternatives to vaginal mesh surgery.

Alternatives to Vaginal Mesh Surgery

These can range from non-mesh surgical approaches to non-surgical treatment methods, providing a variety of options depending on the individual’s needs and the severity of their condition.

Non-Mesh Surgical Approaches

For those seeking to strengthen the vaginal wall without the use of mesh, female pelvic reconstructive surgery using native tissue repair is a viable option.

This method uses the patient’s own tissue to support the pelvic floor and address the damaged tissue.

  • Vaginal wall and prolapse repairs: These surgical procedures reconstruct the vaginal wall to provide support to the pelvic organs.
  • Uterosacral ligament suspension: This surgery involves suturing the apex of the vagina to the uterosacral ligaments to support the vagina and bladder neck.
  • Sacrocervicopexy/Sacrocolpopexy: These techniques attach the cervix or vagina to the sacrum using native tissue or biologic grafts.
  • Colpocleisis: In cases where sexual function is not a concern, this procedure closes the vaginal canal to support the prolapse.

Each option works to repair the underlying problem through different methods tailored to the patient’s specific anatomy and concerns.

Non-Surgical Treatment Methods

Non-surgical treatment methods aim to manage symptoms and prevent further weakening of the vaginal wall without the risks associated with surgery.

This approach is often suitable for those with milder conditions or who are not candidates for surgery.

The following are some key non-surgical treatment methods:

  • Pelvic floor therapy: Specialized physical therapy exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, providing better support for the pelvic organs.
  • Vaginal pessaries: These devices are inserted into the vagina and help support the prolapsed organs.
  • Estrogen therapy: Applied as a vaginal cream, estrogen can help rejuvenate and strengthen damaged tissue in the vagina.
  • Lifestyle modifications: Weight loss and cessation of heavy lifting can decrease the strain on the pelvic floor and prevent further damage.

These treatment methods can offer symptomatic relief and, in some cases, a delay or avoidance of the need for surgical intervention.


Vaginal mesh surgery has emerged as a significant intervention for treating POP (pelvic organ prolapse) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI).


Surgical mesh is designed to provide added support to weakened tissues and has been utilized via transvaginal and transabdominal insertions.

Advantages of vaginal mesh surgery may include:

  1. It can reduce the symptoms of POP.
  2. It may improve urinary function when used for SUI.
  3. Offers a permanent solution compared to non-surgical options.
  4. Lower rates of prolapse recurrence as indicated by patient awareness and clinical examination.

Despite its potential benefits, the use of vaginal mesh has been associated with several risks and complications.

These risks and complications may include, but are not limited to:

  • Mesh exposure or erosion into surrounding tissues.
  • Chronic pain can impact a patient’s quality of life.
  • Possibility of repeat surgeries due to complications or persistent symptoms.
  • There is a need for meticulous patient counseling to manage expectations and inform about potential risks.

There has been considerable discussion and legal attention about the use of vaginal mesh, with entities like TruLaw providing resources and support for those affected.

In light of varied patient outcomes, individual consideration is crucial for each case of vaginal mesh surgery.

Patients should engage in thorough discussions with their healthcare providers to understand the potential benefits and risks before proceeding with surgery.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What alternatives exist for treating prolapse without using mesh?

    There are several non-mesh options for treating prolapse, each depending on the severity of the condition.

    Pelvic floor exercises, like Kegels, offer a non-invasive way to strengthen the muscles.

    For some women, pessaries, which are devices inserted into the vagina to support the pelvic organs, are a viable alternative.

    In certain cases, surgical procedures that use the patient’s own tissues for repair instead of synthetic mesh may be recommended.

  • What complications can arise from vaginal mesh implants?

    Complications from vaginal mesh implants, though not common, can be significant.

    Erosion of the mesh into the vaginal canal is one complication frequently mentioned.

    Other complications include pain during intercourse, infection, bleeding, and urinary problems.

    In some situations, additional transvaginal mesh removal may be required to address these complications.

  • How is surgical mesh used to treat pelvic floor disorders?

    The pelvic mesh implant procedure is a surgical approach to reinforce weakened pelvic tissues, often due to prolapse or incontinence.

    Surgeons insert the mesh through the vagina or the abdomen and secure it to provide support to the pelvic organs.

    The procedure aims to alleviate symptoms associated with pelvic floor disorders.

  • What symptoms indicate complications from a pelvic mesh implant?

    Post-operative symptoms that could indicate complications from a pelvic mesh implant include persistent vaginal bleeding or discharge, chronic pelvic or groin pain, and difficulty urinating.

    Moreover, pain during sexual intercourse and recurrent prolapse symptoms should be evaluated by a healthcare professional as they may suggest mesh-related issues.

  • How is mesh involved in hysterectomy procedures?

    Transvaginal mesh may be utilized during a hysterectomy to provide additional support to the pelvic floor organs, especially in cases of uterine prolapse.

    The procedure involves the removal of the uterus and potentially other structures, during which surgical mesh can be implanted to prevent future prolapse of the vaginal apex or surrounding organs.

  • How long does recovery typically take after pelvic mesh surgery?

    Recovery time after pelvic mesh surgery varies depending on the individual and the surgical approach taken.

    Generally, patients can expect a recovery period ranging from several weeks to a few months.

    During this time, they may be advised to avoid heavy lifting, sexual activity, and other activities that could strain the pelvic floor.

    It is crucial for patients to follow their surgeon’s post-operative guidelines to ensure the best possible outcome.

Written By:
Jessie Paluch
Jessie Paluch

Attorney Jessie Paluch has over 25 years of legal experience in personal injury lawsuits, mass tort litigations, and also spent the first decade of her career working as an international tax attorney at Deloitte. As the founder of TruLaw, Jessie collaborates with attorneys and legal experts across the United States on a daily basis — further expanding her legal expertise and enabling her to share reliable, up-to-date legal information with our readers!

This article has been written and reviewed for legal accuracy and clarity by the team of writers and attorneys at TorHoerman Law and is as accurate as possible. This content should not be taken as legal advice from an attorney. If you would like to learn more about our owner and experienced injury lawyer, Tor Hoerman, you can do so here.

TorHoerman Law does everything possible to make sure the information in this article is up to date and accurate. If you need specific legal advice about your case, contact us. This article should not be taken as advice from an attorney.

Written By:
Jessie Paluch
Jessie Paluch

Experienced Attorney & Legal SaaS CEO

With over 25 years of legal experience, Jessie is an Illinois lawyer, a CPA, and a mother of three.  She spent the first decade of her career working as an international tax attorney at Deloitte.

In 2009, Jessie co-founded her own law firm with her husband – which has scaled to over 30 employees since its conception.

In 2016, Jessie founded TruLaw, which allows her to collaborate with attorneys and legal experts across the United States on a daily basis. This hypervaluable network of experts is what enables her to share reliable legal information with her readers!

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